Like other Indians in similar circumstances, Seminoles were often able to evade U. Other writers, however, contend that European and U.
Because the Indian population of California fell so precipitously and because extreme violence was integral to the process, many scholars not inclined to see genocide as pervasive in U. The relevant history, after all, is a long one more than five hundred years involving hundreds of indigenous nations and several European and neo-European empires and imperial nation-states.
You are responsible for bringing your materials with you to class each day You are responsible for wearing the appropriate uniform, id, and abiding by the rules of your student handbook.
This paper is a major component of the IB History program, and you will begin the process of writing this paper in the last couple months of your junior year. Injust prior to the arrival of the Pilgrims, an epidemic variously identified as typhus, yellow fever, and leptospirosis struck New England coastal Indian communities and raged for three years.
Reservations and the Twentieth Century By the late nineteenth century, Indian nations were no longer pursuing policies involving militant resistance and instead were attempting to adjust to the challenges of living under U.
It was not until the late seventeenth century that the classic killer smallpox appeared. On Hispaniola only twenty to thirty thousand adult Tainos remained alive, far fewer than the pre-Columbian population of at least several hundred thousand and by some estimates as high as 8 million.
Although no major massacre occurred during the Second Seminole War, military officers frequently called for the extermination of Seminoles, and History of the americas essay the absence of massacre was not due to a lack of disposition but to the absence of opportunity.
But what if Indians rejected History of the americas essay gift of Western civilization? Patriots arrive to class on time, every period, every day. Direct killing was a significant factor and may have explained the majority of deaths for some nations, such as the Yukis and Yanas, but overall more people died from disease and malnutrition as they were subjected to coerced labor, land loss, destruction of game, and reservation confinement.
Others would resist arguments for even limited genocide in U. The objectives of such a plan would be disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.
Others, however, are equally certain that the answer is no, namely that European and U. In the early phases of the Revolutionary War most Indian nations allied with Great Britain in large measure because they saw a new settler nation as an unprecedented threat to their lands. Analyzing these multiple histories requires taking into account real differences but without losing sight of a common context of settler colonialism.
Violence was especially pronounced in southwestern Oregon in the early s when gold rush settlers waged a war of extermination against Indians, a clear-cut case of genocidal intent. It is clear, however, that as the Spanish colonizing project expanded in the early sixteenth century, its destructive impacts escalated.
The capacity of Native people and communities to directly resist, blunt, or evade colonial invasions proved equally important.
Some are certain that the answer to the question is yes, that the massive depopulation of indigenous America after was a clear-cut case of genocide. Because of this fact, readers might expect an essay on genocide to begin by discussing various definitions of the term and related terms such as ethnic cleansing and cultural genocide and proceed either to argue for one definition as authoritative or to propose a new one.
During these years, the army conducted military operations against Comanches to force them onto a reservation in western Oklahoma, killing a few hundred. On the other hand, U. It is supervised by your History teacher, but marked by the IB board.
It is now more common for scholars to refer to these events as massacres. Military operations often did not result in massacre, sometimes because of their own weakness inadequate supplies, poor intelligence, failure to avoid detectionmore often because of the ability of Indians to avoid being slaughtered, sometimes by fighting back, sometimes by eluding U.
Overall, though, arguments for genocide tend to place more emphasis on massacres and forced removals than disease. It can relate to any period and any topic within the last 10 years. Since they usually targeted communities rather than armies, these operations inherently carried the potential for massacre.
One response would be that since the United States did not intend to kill Indians and presented removal as a humane alternative to extinction and since the deaths that resulted from removal, insufficient to constitute genocide anyway, were the unintended consequence of unforeseen circumstances bad weather, unanticipated epidemicsgenocide does not apply.
The reading and writing load for this course is demanding. One argument is that genocide does not apply since disease was the primary factor in the depopulation of California Indians; another is that mass violence was undertaken primarily by settlers and that the state and federal governments did not establish a policy of physically killing all Indians.
Byit was only 30, For some, though, even this case might not qualify as genocide, since the federal government did not directly sanction settler actions even though it did underwrite expansion into the region.
The IA markscheme grades each section separately; the EE markscheme grades each criteria across the essay as a whole.
Once settlers arrived, they forced Indians off their land, often squatting on Native land in advance of treaties, which eventually legalized dispossession. Some western nations, such as the Poncas, decided not to resist U.IB History of the Americas Paper 3 Tips This handout is designed to help you prepare for the IB History of the Americas Paper 3 exam.
There are a few. History Of America Essays: OverHistory Of America Essays, History Of America Term Papers, History Of America Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. More Essay Examples on War Rubric.
Course Description: Welcome to your first course in your study of history in the International Baccalaureate program, History of the Americas. The breakthrough first volume, The Next American Essay, highlighted major work from towhile the second, The Lost Origins of the Essay, showcased the essay’s ancient and international forebears.
CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS DBQ This task is based on the accompanying documents.
Some of these documents have been edited for the purpose of this task. This task is designed to test your ability to work with historic documents. Task: Using information from the documents and your knowledge of world history write an essay.
AMERICAN HOLOCAUST The other side of the story to our great American history is not as pretty as they teach us in grade school. The American Holocaust by David Stannard is a novel full of live excerpts from eyewitnesses to the genocide of the American Indians.Download