While forensic studies of psychopathy have almost uniformly employed the PCL-R, studies of noncriminal samples have commonly used self-report scales to measure psychopathy-related traits.
The prefrontal cortex is presumed to act as a high-level gating or filtering mechanism that enhances goal-directed activations and inhibits irrelevant activations. Top-down processing by definition is when behavior is guided by internal states or intentions.
Subjects engaging in this task are instructed to sort cards according to the shape, color, or number of symbols appearing on them. In some cases, comparable moral and economic decision-making profiles have been observed in primary low-anxious psychopaths Koenigs et alKoenigs et al Shimamura proposed Dynamic Filtering Theory to describe the role of the prefrontal cortex in executive functions.
The phrase "delay-period activity" applies to neuronal activity that follows the transient presentation of an instruction cue and persists until a subsequent "go" or "trigger" signal. Fuster speaks of how this prefrontal ability allows the wedding of past to future, allowing both cross-temporal and cross-modal associations in the creation of goal-directed, perception-action cycles.
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is shown to be activated during identification of facial expressions for emotions. The standard presentation e. The PCL-R assessment involves a 60—90 minute semi-structured interview and file review to obtain information used to rate 20 psychopathy-related items as 0, 1, or 2, depending on the degree to which the individual exhibits each trait Table 1middle column.
To explore alternative interpretations of delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex, Lebedev et al. Furthermore, the PCL-R has been shown to consist of interrelated clusters of items, or factors.
Whereas before the accident Gage had been dependable and trustworthy, afterward he became disrespectful, profane, impulsive, and unreliable—traits reminiscent of psychopathy.
Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex has shown to cause damaged to social problem solving skills, such an inability to demonstrate awareness of when certain behaviour is socially inappropriate.
It has recently been shown that damage to the prefrontal cortex at an early age leads to moral reasoning and behaviour deficits, suggesting that our morals can be fixed from an early age Moll, Zahn, Oliveira Souza, Krueger and Grafman, Human subjects with PFC damage are able to sort the card in the initial simple tasks, but unable to do so as the rules of classification change.
The Vietnam head Injury Study which found looked at whether patients with ventromedial prefrontal lesions were more at risk to displaying violence or verbal threats in a confrontational situation. In particular, the anterior prefrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are areas shown to influence antisocial behaviour and emotional judgement.
He survived, however his personality completely changed.
The prefrontal cortex is of significant importance when top-down processing is needed. This filtering mechanism enables executive control at various levels of processing, including selecting, maintaining, updating, and rerouting activations.
As will later be shown in the review of neuroimaging studies of psychopathy, total scores on the PCL-R can be treated categorically in order to classify inmates as non-psychopathic e. Deception and moral cognition has been found to be affected by the prefrontal cortex according to recent neuroimaging studies.
Several studies have indicated that reduced volume and interconnections of the frontal lobes with other brain regions is observed in patients diagnosed with mental disorders and prescribed potent antipsychotics ; those subjected to repeated stressors ;  those who excessively consume sexually explicit materials;  suicides ;  those incarcerated; criminals ; sociopaths ; those affected by lead poisoning;  and daily male cannabis users only 13 people were tested.
Throughout the 20th century, a number of similar cases of personality change following brain injury were reported. Interconnections[ edit ] The prefrontal cortex is highly interconnected with much of the brain, including extensive connections with other cortical, subcortical and brain stem sites.
PL who suffered brain injury at the age of four to the right prefrontal cortex suffered from social-moral difficulties where even when taught to follow mediated rules, they were ineffective.
Cognitive deficits have been suggested to be due to neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the prefrontal cortex causing it to function similarly to people with prefrontal damage. And it is theorized that, as the brain has tripled in size over five million years of human evolution,  the prefrontal cortex has increased in size sixfold.
The connection between PFC injury and pseudopsychopathic changes was subsequently elaborated by Antonio Damasio and colleagues.
It has also been used to explain emotional regulation. This is an umbrella term used for the cognitive processes for social interaction, such as inhibitory control, correct behavioural responses, and theory of mind.
This inability to follow societies rule soon led to criminal behaviour at adolescence. Alcoholics were shown to overestimate what the emotion really was, therefore mislabelling a sad face an angry one.
Although the task made intensive demands on short-term memory, the largest proportion of prefrontal neurons represented attended locations, not remembered ones. A case study of Marlowe also supports these findings. Each factor score can be entered separately in regression analyses.
The medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the generation of slow-wave sleep SWSand prefrontal atrophy has been linked to decreases in SWS. The concept of working memory used by proponents of this theory focused mostly on the short-term maintenance of information, and rather less on the manipulation or monitoring of such information or on the use of that information for decisions.
Overall the findings of the IED patients were similar to the patients with prefrontal lesions which further extends the evidence that dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex can lead to antisocial behaviour.
Remarkably, Gage survived the blast, but his personality was permanently altered. Miller and Cohen conclude that the implications of their theory can explain how much of a role the PFC has in guiding control of cognitive actions.
Many disorders, such as schizophreniabipolar disorderand ADHDhave been related to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, and thus this area of the brain offers the potential for new treatments of these conditions.
An accident involving explosives sent the rod into his head and through his left frontal lobe.The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is composed of granular cortical areas (medial areas BA9 and BA10) and agranular regions (areas 24, 25, and 32) which encompasses the anterior cingulate cortex (area 24), infralimbic cortex.
The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy Michael Koenigs Abstract Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior.
Given the signiﬁ cant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal acti-vity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need the ventromedial prefrontal. Free Essay: Lesions of the Prefrontal Cortex The prefrontal cortex is involved in a wide variety of functions.
It is known as the area of the brain which has. Antisocial behaviour is a broad term covering any behaviour that causes damage and conflicts with the interests of society. This therefore includes violence, inappropriate behaviour, lack of empathy and verbal abuse which has all be associated to dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex.
The prefrontal cortex plays a major role in social cognition. Keywords: Neuroimaging, Emotion, Decision-Making, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Crime, Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex INTRODUCTION Psychopathy—a personality disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior—has devastating effects on society, particularly through crime.
The Prefrontal Cortex And Antisocial Behaviour Psychology Essay. Not only do the findings support the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in antisocial behaviour- increased antisocial behaviour is linked to reduced function of several prefrontal regions- but they propose some localisation of antisocial aspects in specific sub-regions of.Download